nica’s Weblog

April 16, 2009

Chapter 6.1: Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions

Filed under: itethics — monica @ 12:21 pm

Monica Frances T. Hao   ITETHIC

00A

 

Book: Cyber Ethics

 

Chapter 6.1: Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions

 

Library Reference: N/A

 

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-Richard-Spinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1

 

Quote:

 

Information technology affects fundamental rights involving copyright protection, intellectual freedom, accountability, and security.

 

Learning Expectation:

 

In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethics and the Information Revolution is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethics and the Information Revolution? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethics and the Information Revolution means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

 

Review:

 

Information ethics is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues concerning informational privacy, moral agency, new environmental issues, problems arising from the life-cycle (creation, collection, recording, distribution, processing, etc.) of information (especially ownership and copyright, digital divide). Information Ethics is related to the fields of computer ethics and the philosophy of information.

 

Dilemmas regarding the life of information are becoming increasingly important in a society that is defined as “the information society”. Information transmission and literacy are essential concerns in establishing an ethical foundation that promotes fair, equitable, and responsible practices. Information ethics broadly examines issues related to ownership, access, privacy, security, and community.

 

Lessons Learned:

 

Information ethics

Its implication

Information society

Information philosophy

 

5 integrative questions:

 

What are the ethical considerations for the information profession?

What is the implication of having information ethics?

What is information philosophy?

What is information society?

Are these concepts related?

Chapter 6.6: The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues

Filed under: itethics — monica @ 12:18 pm

Monica Frances T. Hao ITETHIC

00A

Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 6.6: The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues

Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-Richard-Spinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1

Quote:

Without any practice, careers can no longer be developed

Learning Expectation:

In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethics The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

Review:

A general practitioner, or GP is a medical practitioner who provides primary care and specializes in family medicine. A general practitioner treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. They have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues and comorbidities.

In the English-speaking world the term general practitioner is common in Ireland, the United Kingdom, some other Commonwealth countries. In these countries the word physician is largely reserved for certain other types of medical specialists, notably in internal medicine.

Virtues can be placed into a broader context of values. Each individual has a core of underlying values that contribute to our system of beliefs, ideas and/or opinions (see value in semiotics). Integrity in the application of a value ensures its continuity and this continuity separates a value from beliefs, opinion and ideas. In this context a value is the core from which we operate or react

Lessons Learned:

· Practitioner

· Ethics

· Values from within

· Virtues from within

5 integrative questions:

1. What is or what does a practitioner do?

2. What is a value?

3. What is virtue?

4. How is this related to IT?

5. Do they contribute a lot?

Chapter 6.5: Ethical Issues in Business Computing

Filed under: itethics — monica @ 12:18 pm

Monica Frances T. Hao ITETHIC

00A

Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 6.5: Ethical Issues in Business Computing

Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-Richard-Spinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1

Quote:

The etymology of “business” relates to the state of being busy either as an individual or society as a whole, doing commercially viable and profitable work.

Learning Expectation:

In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethical Issues in Business Computing is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethical Issues in Business Computing? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethical Issues in Business Computing means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

Review:

A business (also called a firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organization designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, most being privately owned and formed to earn profit that will increase the wealth of its owners and grow the business itself. The owners and operators of a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation of a financial return in exchange for work and acceptance of risk. Notable exceptions include cooperative businesses and state-owned enterprises. Socialist systems involve either government agencies, public, or worker ownership of most sizable businesses.

Good business practices are essential in today´s society. The Business and Computing Faculty is committed to teaching you the skills you need to pursue a career in business.

A wide range of full and part-time programmes leading to national qualifications are offered. Courses range through all levels of business, computing and office training, from basic bridging courses to degree-level study. The Bachelor of Business Studies, Bachelor of Computing Systems, New Zealand Diploma in Business and Diploma in Information & Communications Technology programmes are some examples of the qualifications offered. Practical hands-on skills and sound theory are combined in these programmes.

Lessons Learned:

· business computing

· issues surrounding it

· implications of those issues

5 integrative questions:

1. What is business computing?

2. What is the purpose of a business computing system?

3. What can we contribute?

4. Is it that big?

5. How can we apply it?

Chapter 6.4: Subsumption Ethics

Filed under: itethics — monica @ 12:16 pm

Monica Frances T. Hao ITETHIC

00A

Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 6.4: Subsumption Ethics

Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-Richard-Spinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1

Quote:

Subsumption is the process of building larger components from smaller ones. In this sense, a cell subsumes DNA function.

Learning Expectation:

In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Subsumption Ethics is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Subsumption Ethics? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Subsumption Ethics means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

Review:

A subsumption is a way of decomposing complicated intelligent behaviour into many “simple” behaviour modules, which are in turn organized into layers. Each layer implements a particular goal of the agent, and higher layers are increasingly more abstract. Each layer’s goal subsumes that of the underlying layers, e.g. the decision to move forward by the eat-food layer takes into account the decision of the lowest obstacle-avoidance layer. As opposed to more traditional AI approaches subsumption architecture uses a bottom-up design.

For example, a robot’s lowest layer could be “avoid an object”, on top of it would be the layer “wander around”, which in turn lies under “explore the world”. Each of these horizontal layers access all of the sensor data and generate actions for the actuators — the main caveat is that separate tasks can suppress (or overrule) inputs or inhibit outputs. This way, the lowest layers can work like fast-adapting mechanisms (e.g. reflexes), while the higher layers work to achieve the overall goal. Feedback is given mainly through the environment.

Lessons Learned:

· Subsumption ethics

· Subsumption in robots

· Behavior models

5 integrative questions:

1. What is subsumption?

2. What are its fields?

3. How is it related to programming?

4. Is it relevant?

5. What can we contribute?

Chapter 6.2: Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved!

Filed under: itethics — monica @ 12:15 pm

Monica Frances T. Hao ITETHIC

00A

Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 6.2: Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved!

Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-Richard-Spinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1

Learning Expectation:

In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved! is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved!? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved! means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

Review:

Computers have a central and growing role in commerce, industry, government, medicine, education, entertainment and society at large. Software engineers are those who contribute by direct participation or by teaching, to the analysis, specification, design, development, certification, maintenance and testing of software systems. Because of their roles in developing software systems, software engineers have significant opportunities to do good or cause harm, to enable others to do good or cause harm, or to influence others to do good or cause harm.

To ensure, as much as possible, that their efforts will be used for good, software engineers must commit themselves to making software engineering a beneficial and respected profession. In accordance with that commitment, software engineers shall adhere to the Code of Ethics and Professional Practice.

Lessons Learned:

8 principles:

· PUBLIC – Software engineers shall act consistently with the public interest.

· CLIENT AND EMPLOYER – Software engineers shall act in a manner that is in the best interests of their client and employer, consistent with the public interest.

· PRODUCT – Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possible.

· JUDGMENT – Software engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment.

· MANAGEMENT – Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development and maintenance.

· PROFESSION – Software engineers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest.

· COLLEAGUES – Software engineers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues.

· SELF – Software engineers shall participate in lifelong learning regarding the practice of their profession and shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the profession.

5 integrative questions:

1. What does IEEE-CS stands for?

2. What does ACM stands for?

3. What do the 8 principles imply?

4. Why does software engineering need ethics?

5. Is this punishable when people will break the rule/s?

Chapter 6.3: No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All

Filed under: itethics — monica @ 12:15 pm

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Monica Frances T. Hao ITETHIC

00A

Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 6.3: No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All

Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-Richard-Spinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1

Quote:

Written guidelines issued by an organization to its workers and management, to help them conduct their actions in accordance with its primary values and ethical standards.

Learning Expectation:

In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

Review:

A code of ethics is a set of principles of conduct within an organization that guide decision making and behavior. The purpose of the code is to provide members and other interested persons with guidelines for making ethical choices in the conduct of their work. Professional integrity is the cornerstone of many employees’ credibility. Member of an organization adopt a code of ethics to share a dedication to ethical behavior and adopt this code to declare the organization’s principles and standards of practice.

A code of ethics issued by a business is a particular kind of policy statement. A properly framed code is, in effect, a form of legislation within the company binding on its employees, with specific sanctions for violation of the code. If such sanctions are absent, the code is just a list of pieties. The most severe sanction is usually dismissal—unless a crime has been committed.

As for those who write moral codes has to know the possible events that may occur once a moral code is written or not written done because there might be cases wherein those codes has to strictly follow and comply to practical actions people actually do

Lessons Learned:

· PAPA

· Teleworking

· Telecommuting

· Moral codes

· Code of ethics

5 integrative questions:

1. What does PAPA stands for?

2. What is code of ethics?

3. What is teleworking?

4. What is telecommuting?

5. What are the PAPA issues?

Chapter 6.1: Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions

Filed under: itethics — monica @ 12:14 pm

Monica Frances T. Hao ITETHIC

00A

Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 6.1: Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions

Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-Richard-Spinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1

Quote:

Information technology affects fundamental rights involving copyright protection, intellectual freedom, accountability, and security.

Learning Expectation:

In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethics and the Information Revolution is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethics and the Information Revolution? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethics and the Information Revolution means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

Review:

Information ethics is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues concerning informational privacy, moral agency, new environmental issues, problems arising from the life-cycle (creation, collection, recording, distribution, processing, etc.) of information (especially ownership and copyright, digital divide). Information Ethics is related to the fields of computer ethics and the philosophy of information.

Dilemmas regarding the life of information are becoming increasingly important in a society that is defined as “the information society”. Information transmission and literacy are essential concerns in establishing an ethical foundation that promotes fair, equitable, and responsible practices. Information ethics broadly examines issues related to ownership, access, privacy, security, and community.

Lessons Learned:

· Information ethics

· Its implication

· Information society

· Information philosophy

5 integrative questions:

1. What are the ethical considerations for the information profession?

2. What is the implication of having information ethics?

3. What is information philosophy?

4. What is information society?

5. Are these concepts related?

Chapter 5.6: Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity

Filed under: itethics — monica @ 12:13 pm

Monica Frances T. Hao ITETHIC

00A

Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 5.6: Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity

Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-Richard-Spinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1

Quote:

Authentication by biometric verification is becoming increasingly common in corporate and public security systems, consumer electronics and point of sale applications. In addition to security, the driving force behind biometric verification has been convenience.

Learning Expectation:

In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

Review:

Biometrics refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In information technology, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.

The main operations a system can perform are enrollment and test. During the enrollment, biometric information from an individual is stored. During the test, biometric information is detected and compared with the stored information. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and our system; it has to acquire all the necessary data.

Most of the times it is an image acquisition system, but it can change according to the characteristics desired. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor, to enhance the input, to use some kind of normalization, etc. In the third block features needed are extracted. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted and the optimal way. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. A template is a synthesis of all the characteristics extracted from the source, in the optimal size to allow for adequate identifiability.

Lessons Learned:

· Biometrics

· Characteristics and types of biometrics

· Identifying biometric identity

· Virtual identities

5 integrative questions:

1. What is biometrics?

2. What is its relevance to IT?

3. What are the types of biometrics?

4. What are biometric identities?

5. What does biometric verification do?

Chapter 5.5: The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age

Filed under: itethics — monica @ 12:13 pm

Monica Frances T. Hao ITETHIC

00A

Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 5.5: The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age

Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-Richard-Spinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1

Quote:

The power of information technology to extract or infer identity from non-identifying signs and information has been inventively applied by literary scholars to settling disputes and unraveling mysteries of authorship

Learning Expectation:

In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethics and the Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

Review:

An understanding of the natural meaning of anonymity, as may be reflected in ordinary usage or a dictionary definition, is of remaining nameless, that is to say, conducting oneself without revealing one’s name. A poem or pamphlet is anonymous when unattributable to a named person, a donation is anonymous when the name of the donor is withheld, people strolling through a foreign city are anonymous because no-one knows who they are. Extending this understanding into the electronic sphere, one might suggest that conducting one’s affairs, communicating, or engaging in transactions anonymously in the electronic sphere, is to do so without one’s name being known. Specific cases that shows sample include:

  • sending electronic mail to an individual, or bulletin board, without one’s given name appearing in any part of the header
  • participating in a “chat” group, electronic forum, or game without one’s given name being known by other participants
  • buying something with the digital equivalent of cash
  • being able to visit any web site without having to divulge one’s identity

Lessons Learned:

· Definition of anonymity

· Information generation

· Gatekeepers

· Usage of anonymity

5 integrative questions:

1. What does a gatekeeper do?

2. What is a gatekeeper?

3. What is information generation?

4. What is the difference of anonymity in cyber ethics and in the handbook of ethics?

5. What is the relevance of using anonymity?

Chapter 5.4: The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age

Filed under: itethics — monica @ 12:12 pm

Monica Frances T. Hao ITETHIC

00A

Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 5.4: The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age

By: Helen Nissenbaum

Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-Richard-Spinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1

Quote:

“Information technology has made it possible to trace people in historically unprecendented ways. We are targets of surveillance at just about every time of our lives.”

Learning Expectation:

In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

Review:

In this chapter to be able to extend this understanding into the electronic sphere, one might suggest that conducting one’s affairs, communicating, or engaging in transactions anonymously in the electronic sphere, is to do so without one’s name being known. Specific cases that are regularly discussed include: sending electronic mail to an individual, or bulletin board, without one’s given name appearing in any part of the header, participating in a “chat” group, electronic forum, or game without one’s given name being known by other participants, buying something with the digital equivalent of cash and being able to visit any web site without having to divulge one’s identity. Being too mysterious is sometimes nice but too much of it is not good because for me you need to get out of your mom’s skirt for you to be able excel, even not in class and especially when you are now professional you need to be confident because no one will like you if you are the mysterious type of a person.

Lessons Learned:

· Brief definition of anonymity

· Data-flow

· Information registration

· Gatekeepers

· Analysis after admission

· Methods

· Anonymity of sender

· First encryption with a public and secure key

· Double encryption twice applied

· Encryption procedure with an anonymity sender

5 integrative questions:

1. What is data flow?

2. What are gatekeepers?

3. What is information registration?

4. What is anonymity of sender?

5. What is the first encryption with a public and secure key?

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